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Table 2 Response rates overall and by design characteristics, by gender, race, and age

From: Shortening a survey and using alternative forms of prenotification: Impact on response rate and quality

  2 × 2 Factorial Design
  Overall Pages Notification
   2 4 Letter Postcard
Overall 363 (46.5) 169 (44.6) 194 (48.4) 179 (46.3) 184 (46.8)
Gender      
   Female 212 (54.1) 105 (54.4) 107 (53.8) 108 (54.8) 104 (53.3)
   Male 151 (38.9) 64 (34.4) 87 (43.1) 71 (37.4) 80 (40.4)
   P value† < 0.0001 0.007 0.03 0.0006 0.01
Race      
   White 306 (52.6) 147 (50.5) 159 (54.6) 151 (52.6) 155 (52.5)
   Non-white * 14 (24.14) 6 (22.2) 8 (25.8) 5 (15.6) 9 (34.6)
   Unknown/Other 43 (30.7) 16 (26.2) 27 (34.2) 23 (33.8) 20 (27.8)
   P value† < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0002 < 0.0001 0.0003
Age      
   25 - 29 35 (30.7) 12 (21.8) 23 (39.0) 12 (25.0) 23 (34.8)
   30 - 39 81 (40.7) 32 (32.3) 49 (49.0) 42 (41.2) 39 (40.2)
   40 - 49 107 (50.7) 51 (52.0) 56 (49.6) 57 (51.8) 50 (49.5)
   50 - 59 103 (55.1) 56 (59.0) 47 (51.1) 50 (54.4) 53 (55.8)
   60 - 65 37 (53.6) 18 (56.2) 19 (51.4) 18 (51.4) 19 (55.9)
   P value† 0.0002 < 0.0001 0.63 0.008 0.04
  1. †P-values comparing response rates within condition from chi-square test or Fisher's exact test where appropriate.
  2. Note: In the factorial design, response rates did not differ significantly by survey length (p = 0.29) or by notification type (p = 0.87). Combining pages and notification into 4 separate groups, the p-value for the difference in response rate was 0.56 (results not shown).
  3. * "Non-white" includes: American Indian/Alaskan Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and Asian.