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Table 3 Scenarios 1 & 2: 30% 'good' prognosis, ×1.2 'good' prognosis survival, 10% and 25% switching probabilities, 100% treatment effect for switchers, uniform distribution for switching times

From: Assessing methods for dealing with treatment switching in randomised controlled trials: a simulation study

True HR and eψ Method Mean estimate Mean SE SE of mean 95% Confidence interval Bias MSE Coverage (%) Successful estimation (%)
      Lower Upper     
  Hazard ratio methods          
  ITT 0.9120 0.0884 0.0882 0.7542 1.1027 0.0120 0.0079 94.6 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 0.9053 0.0932 0.0929 0.7399 1.1076 0.0053 0.0087 94.3 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 1.0589 0.1091 0.1086 0.8653 1.2957 0.1589 0.0370 67.5 100.0
  Time-dependent covariate 1.1998 0.1189 0.1211 0.9880 1.4570 0.2998 0.1046 19.1 100.0
  Law and Kaldor 0.9168 0.1136 0.1132 0.7192 1.1688 0.0168 0.0131 94.7 100.0
  Loeys and Goethebeur 0.8900 - 0.1086 0.6999 1.1354 -0.0100 0.0119 94.8 100.0
0.9 & 1.23 AFT methods          
  ITT 1.2357 0.2392 0.2423 0.8457 1.8060 0.0011 0.0587 94.6 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 1.2586 0.0932 0.2616 0.8415 1.8830 0.0240 0.0690 94.3 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 0.9214 0.1864 0.1897 0.6199 1.3700 -0.3132 0.1341 66.3 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Logrank 1.2715 - 0.2852 0.8244 1.9604 0.0370 0.0827 94.7 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Cox 1.2703 - 0.2806 0.8199 1.9888 0.0357 0.0800 95.2 97.2
  Robins and Tsiatis - Exponential 1.2781 - 0.2820 0.9712 1.7776 0.0436 0.0814 83.0 99.7
  Robins and Tsiatis - Weibull 1.2714 - 0.2845 0.8278 1.9933 0.0369 0.0823 95.0 99.7
  Branson and Whitehead 1.2681 0.2455 0.2745 0.8678 1.8536 0.0335 0.0765 92.7 100.0
  Walker et al 2.2108 1.1659 1.1869 0.8323 1218.7190 0.9763 2.3617 76.6 99.4
  Hazard ratio methods          
  ITT 0.7315 0.0731 0.0743 0.6014 0.8897 0.0315 0.0065 93.6 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 0.7050 0.0744 0.0776 0.5733 0.8669 0.0050 0.0060 94.3 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 0.8215 0.0868 0.0886 0.6678 1.0106 0.1215 0.0226 69.2 100.0
  Time-dependent covariate 0.9364 0.0950 0.0982 0.7675 1.1424 0.2364 0.0655 18.8 100.0
  Law and Kaldor 0.7376 0.0957 0.0968 0.5720 0.9511 0.0376 0.0108 93.6 100.0
  Loeys and Goethebeur 0.6733 - 0.0876 0.5220 0.8672 -0.0267 0.0084 93.2 100.0
0.7 & 2.04 AFT methods          
  ITT 1.9259 0.3858 0.3992 1.3007 2.8524 -0.1150 0.1726 93.5 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 2.0825 0.0744 0.4676 1.3766 3.1516 0.0417 0.2204 94.3 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 1.5194 0.3140 0.3241 1.0136 2.2786 -0.5214 0.3769 66.5 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Logrank 2.1014 - 0.5024 1.3483 3.3204 0.0606 0.2561 94.5 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Cox 2.0969 - 0.4977 1.3303 73.7821 0.0561 0.2508 94.9 93.5
  Robins and Tsiatis - Exponential 2.1041 - 0.5090 1.4957 3.1128 0.0633 0.2631 87.1 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Weibull 2.1017 - 0.5024 1.3497 3.4566 0.0609 0.2561 94.9 100.0
  Branson and Whitehead 2.0889 0.4188 0.4770 1.4104 3.0949 0.0481 0.2299 92.2 100.0
  Walker et al 3.6507 1.8935 1.5878 1.3852 92.4403 1.6099 5.1127 79.5 93.1