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Table 2 Key characteristics of quantitative approaches for benefits and harm assessment

From: A framework for organizing and selecting quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment

Approaches for B&H assessment BLRA[22] Boers[23] Gail[3] INHB[24, 25] MCDA[4, 26] MCE[6, 27] NCB[28] NNT& NNH[12, 13] PSM[29] QFRBA[6] Q-TWiST[14, 15, 30] RBC[31] RBP[32] RV-NNT[6, 27] SPM & MAR[3335] TURBO[11] Number of approaches in each category
Key characteristics
Types of data                  
Require individual patient data Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No Indiv: 3
No: 13
Types of analyses                  
Data driven (DD) versus simulation (S) DD NA DD/S DD DD DD DD/S DD S DD DD DD/S DD DD DD DD DD: 14
S: 4
Types of B&H metrics                  
Absolute versus relative measures versus QALY versus other (O) Other A A QALY A / relative A A A A A / relative A /QALY A A A A A / relative Absolute: 14
Relative: 3
Put B&H outcomes on same scale yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes no yes yes no yes Yes: 12
Uncertainty estimates for B&H assessment no no no no yes no yes no* yes NA no yes no no NA no Yes: 4
No: 12
Joint distribution of B&H outcomes considered for uncertainty estimates no NA. P NA no NA no no P NA NA P P no NA NA Possible: 4
No: 4
n.a.: 8
Multiple endpoints versus composite outcomes for B&H M Comp M M M M M M/ Comp M M M M Comp M M Comp Multiple:12
Comp: 5
Consideration of preferences
Explicitly considers preferences for B&H assessment: yes no yes no yes both yes no both no yes no no yes yes no Yes: 9
Types of presenting benefit risk comparison
B&H difference versus B&H ratio versus Time gained/lost versus B&H graphic versus other D Graphic D D D, ratio, other D D Ratio D D, ratio, other Time, D Graphic Graphic Ratio D Graphic Difference: 10
Ratio: 4
Time: 1
Graphic: 3
  1. # NNT and NNH are most commonly used separately but put on the same scale if their ratio is taken.
  2. NA, Not applicable; BLRA, Benefit-less-risk analysis; B&H, Benefit and harm assessment; INHB, Incremental net health benefit; MCDA, Multicriteria decision analysis; MCE, Minimum clinical efficacy; NCB, Net Clinical Benefit; NNT, Number needed to treat; NNH, Number needed to treat for harm; PSM, Probabilistic simulation methods; QFRBA, Quantitative Framework for Risk and Benefit Assessment; Q-Twist, (Quality-adjusted) Time without Symptoms and Toxicity; RBC, Risk–benefit contour; RBP, Risk–benefit plane; RV-NNT, Relative value adjusted number needed to treat; SPM, Stated preference method; MAR, Maximum acceptable risk; TURBO, Transparent Uniform Risk Benefit Overview; P, Possible; D, Difference; A, Absolute; M, Multiple.