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Table 1 Sample characteristics, randomisation and test for group differences at baseline ( n= 395)

From: Agreement between pre-post measures of change and transition ratings as well as then-tests

  Total (N = 395) Group 1: “direct” (N = 194) Group 2: “quasi- indirect” (N = 201) Group difference$
n % n % n %
Female 131 33.2 64 33.0 67 33.3 p = .942
Diagnosis        p = .865
   Cardiovascular 187 47.3 91 46.9 96 47.3
   Musculoskeletal 208 52.7 103 53.1 105 52.7
Highest level of education completed        p = .664
   None/elementary school 207 52.8 105 54.7 102 51.0
   Secondary school 101 25.8 49 25.5 52 26.0
   University entrance qualification# 77 19.6 36 18.8 41 20.5
   Other 7 1.8 2 1.0 5 2.5
General health status        p = .981
   Very good 5 1.3 2 1.0 3 1.5
   Good 38 9.7 18 9.4 20 10.0
   Satisfactory 93 23.7 46 24.0 47 23.4
   Fair 176 44.8 88 45.8 88 43.8
   poor 81 20.6 38 19.8 43 21.4
  M SD M SD M SD Group difference*
Age 50.5 8.3 50.8 8.2 50.2 8.4 p = .449
Physical functioning index (SF-36) 49.1 27.4 47.9 27.1 50.2 27.6 p = .403
Somatisation (SCL-90-R) 1.9 0.6 2.0 0.6 1.9 0.5 p = .672
Sleep function (IRES) 3.7 1.2 3.8 1.2 3.6 1.2 p = .241
  1. Legend: M = mean, SD = standard deviation.
  2. $ χ 2-test, *t-test for independent samples.
  3. # the German “Abitur”.