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Table 1 Characteristics of Patients Consented or Refused to Study Participation

From: Patient recruitment to a randomized clinical trial of behavioral therapy for chronic heart failure

  Consented Patients N = 134 Refused Patients N = 407 P-value*
Patient Characteristics
   Age (year)    
   Mean (SD) 69.9 (9.6) 73.0 (9.7) 0.002
   Race
   White 83% 84% 0.001
   No-white (mainly African American) 15% 7%  
   Unknown 2% 9%  
Cardiac Systolic Function
   LVEF (%)    
   Mean (SD) 31.3 (7.0) 31.7 (7.9) 0.56
CHF Medication    
   ACE-Inhibitors 82% 75% 0.08
   β-Blockers 76% 71% 0.27
Distance between Residence and Study Site (Mile)    
   Mean (SD) 21.7 (21.4) 31.3 (33.6) 0.0002
  1. *: P-value of statistical tests of t-test or chi-square test, comparing patients consented vs. refused to study participation.