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Table 1 Recruitment to and exclusion from the BRUM trial, by ethnic group

From: Recruitment of ethnic minority patients to a cardiac rehabilitation trial: The Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation (BRUM) study [ISRCTN72884263]

  White South Asian Other fp-value
All presenting, n 1452 412 69  
MI n (%) 811 (56.4) 230 (56.5) 42 (61.8) 0.6
PTCA n (%) 514 (35.7) 149 (36.6) 19 (27.9)  
CABG n (%) 113 (7.9) 28 (6.9) 7 (10.3)  
Mean (SD) age 66.3 (12.0) 61.0 (12.4) 66.5 (12.2) <0.001
Males n (%) 998 (68.9) 311 (75.5) 47 (69.1) 0.04
Mean (SD) Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) [14] 32.9 (17.1) 43.7 (16.6) 48.3 (16.8) <0.001
Excluded n (%) 525 (36.1) 214 (51.9) 25 (36.2) <0.001
Reason for exclusion (more than 1 may apply) n (%)     
aLanguage 4 (0.30) 120 (29.4) 3 (4.5) <0.001
bHigh cardiac risk 191 (13.2) 50 (12.1) 6 (8.7) 0.7
cComorbidity 175 (12.1) 28 (6.8) 6 (8.7) 0.01
In other trial 18 (1.2) 6 (1.5) 2 (2.9) 0.7
Out of area 76 (5.2) 18 (4.4) 2 (2.9) 0.4
dSensory deficit 37 (2.5) 8 (1.9) 1 (1.4) 0.6
eMental health 41 (2.8) 6 (1.5) 5 (7.2) 0.06
Deceased 19 (1.3) 5 (1.2) 0 (0) 0.6
Excluded for language only n (%) 2 (0.1) 100 (24.3) 3 (4.35) <0.001
Eligible n (% of all presenting) 927 (63.8) 198 (48.1) 44 (63.8) <0.001
Males (% of presenting males) 659 (65.7) 163 (52.4) 32 (68.0)  
Female (% presenting females) 268 (59.0) 35 (34.7) 12 (54.6)  
Mean (SD) IMD of eligible patients 32.3 (16.6) 41.2 (16.7) 47.1 (17.3) <0.001
Refused (% of eligible) 514 (55.4) 109 (55.1) 27 (61.4) 0.2
Reason for refusal: n (%)     
Did not want rehabilitation 85 (16.5) 10 (9.2) 3 (11.1)  
Did not want to take part in research 272 (52.9) 38 (34.9) 11 (40.7)  
Preference for hospital programme 62 (12.1) 15 (13.8) 3 (11.1)  
No reason given 95 (18.5) 46 (42.2) 10 (37.0) <0.001
Total recruited (% of eligible) 418 (45.1) 88 (44.4) 19 (43.2) 0.7
(% of all)    (28.8)    (21.4)    (21.3)  
Males (% of eligible males) 312 (47.3) 76 (46.6) 14 (43.8)  
Female (% of eligible females) 106 (39.6) 12 (34.3) 5 (41.7)  
Mean (SD) IMD of recruited patients 31.6 (15.7) 40.0 (16.9) 47.0 (15.2) <0.001
  1. aLanguage: unable to speak English or Punjabi, or Punjabi speaking nurse not available to recruit the patient.
  2. bHigh risk: patients with risk factors excluding a home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme, e.g. severe angina, hart failure or documented arrhythmias.
  3. cComorbidity: physical conditions which would interfere with the ability to undertake a cardiac rehabilitation programme, e.g. severe arthritis, malignancy.
  4. dSensory deficit: severe hearing or visual loss such that patients would not be able to read written materials or communicate with research nurses on the telephone.
  5. eMental health: patients with case-note documented dementia or current mental illness.
  6. fChi square test (except for age comparison, oneway ANOVA; index of deprivation comparison, Kruskal-Wallis test)