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Table 3 Exclusions by ethnic group within the South Asian population presenting with a cardiovascular event

From: Recruitment of ethnic minority patients to a cardiac rehabilitation trial: The Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation (BRUM) study [ISRCTN72884263]

  Indian
n (%)
n = 136
Pakistani
n (%)
n = 238
Bangladeshi
n (%)
n = 20
Mean (SD) age, years 61.0 (12.6) 61.0 (12.4) 63.1 (7.3)
Males n, (%) 96 (70.6) 184 (77.3) 15 (75)
Mean (SD) IMD score 35.95 (15.8) 47.8 (15.7) 48.9 (14.4)
Any exclusion 40 (29.4) 151 (63.4) 14 (70)
Reason for exclusion (more than one may apply) n (%)    
aLanguage 10 (7.5) 94 (39.8) 11 (55)
bHigh cardiac risk 15 (11) 33 (13.9) 1 (5)
cComorbidity 8 (5.9) 19 (8.0) 0 (0)
Excluded for language only:    1
All n (%) 7 (5.1) 78 (32.8) 1 (55)
Aged <65 years 3 (3.4) 34 (24.8) 4 (40)
65+ 4 (8.2) p = 0.2 44 (43.6) p = 0.002 7 (87.5) p = 0.2
Gender males 4 (4.2) 51 (27.7) 6 (40)
females 3 (7.5) p = 0.4 27 (50) p = 0.003 5 (100) p = 0.04
Total recruited n 50 31 4
(% of eligible) (52.1) (35.6)  
(% of all presenting) (36.8) (13) (20)
RR of ineligibility (95%CI)* 0.89 (0.6, 1.3) 4.0 (2.9, 5.5) 4.4 (1.6, 11.8)
  1. aLanguage: unable to speak English or Punjabi, or Punjabi speaking nurse not available to recruit the patient.
  2. bHigh risk: patients with risk factors excluding a home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme, e.g. severe angina, heart failure or documented arrhythmias.
  3. cComorbidity: physical conditions which would interfere with the ability to undertake a cardiac rehabilitation programme, e.g. severe arthritis, malignancy.
  4. SD: standard deviation
  5. *adjusted for age, sex and deprivation index using white British as the reference group (RR = 1.0)