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Table 2 Individual study results (2 × 2 data), results of the quality assessment, and quality scores using each of the five scoring schemes

From: No role for quality scores in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies

Study details 2 × 2 Data QUADAS Results Quality score
  TP FP FN TN Spectrum composition Selection criteria Reference standard Disease progression bias Partial verification bias Differential verification bias Incorporation bias Test execution details Reference execution details Test review bias Diagnostic review bias Clinical review bias Uninterpretable results Withdrawals Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 Score 4 Score 5
Standard US
Baronciani (1986) [24] 13 4 8 49 + + + ? + + + - - ? ? ? ? ? 43 64 45 46 53
Dura (1997) [25] 3 4 14 27 - + + + + + + + + + + ? + + 86 89 85 77 79
Evans (1999) [26] 2 10 17 84 - + + ? + + + + - ? ? ? + ? 50 68 48 42 49
Foresman (2001) [27] 24 43 25 47 - + + + + + + + - + + ? + + 79 82 79 73 76
Mage (1989) [28] 22 5 19 76 - - + ? + + + + - ? ? ? ? ? 36 57 42 35 42
Mahant (2002) [29] 14 30 21 97 - + + + + + + + - + + ? ? ? 64 75 73 65 68
Morin (1999) [30] 20 41 2 7 - + + + + + + + - ? ? ? ? ? 50 68 55 42 52
Muensterer (2002) [31] 35 76 34 241 - + + + + + + + - ? ? ? ? + 57 71 58 46 55
Oostenbrink (2000) [32] 21 20 16 83 + + + ? - ? + + - + ? ? ? - 43 61 42 42 47
Salih (1994) [33] 26 3 1 12 + - + + + + + - - ? ? ? ? - 43 57 52 46 58
Tan (1988) [34] 3 6 14 32 - - + + + + + + + - - ? ? ? 50 61 58 42 52
Verber (1988) [35] 8 9 20 25 + - + ? - + + + + ? ? ? ? - 43 61 45 38 46
Median Score                    50 66 53 44 52
Contrast-enhanced US
Alzen (1994) [36] 20 6 2 73 - - + + + + + - - ? ? ? ? ? 36 54 45 35 46
Bergius (1990) [23] 56 2 14 176 + - + ? + + + + - + + + ? - 64 71 76 81 76
Berrocal (2001) [37] 94 29 10 307 - - + + + + + + - ? ? ? ? ? 43 61 52 38 49
Berrocal Frutos (2000) [38] 63 19 7 204 - + + + + + + + + + + ? + + 86 89 85 77 79
Haberlick (1997) [39] 21 10 9 114 - + + + + + + + - ? ? ? ? ? 50 68 55 42 52
Kessler (1982) [40] 13 0 4 38 - + + ? - + + + - + ? ? ? - 43 57 45 38 44
McEwing (2002) [41] 8 3 8 173 - + + + + + + + - + + ? ? + 71 79 76 69 72
Mentzel (2002) [42] 36 10 4 174 - - + + + + + + + + ? ? + + 71 79 73 62 69
Nakamura (2002) [43] 9 3 2 52 - - + ? + + + + - + + ? ? ? 50 64 61 58 59
Piaggio (2003) [44] 42 35 32 196 - + + ? + + + + + ? ? + ? + 64 79 64 58 56
Radmayr (2002) [44] 71 5 3 129 - - + + + + + + + + + ? + + 79 82 82 73 76
Schneider (1984) [45] 46 15 17 141 - + + + + + + + + + + ? ? ? 71 82 79 69 71
Siamplis (1996) [46] 15 4 3 154 - + + + + + + + - ? ? ? + ? 57 71 58 46 56
Valentini (2001) [47] 34 4 8 72 - - + + + + + + + - - ? ? ? 50 61 58 42 52
Uhl (2003) [48] 16 0 3 28 + + + + + + + - - + ? ? + ? 64 75 67 65 74
Von Rohden (1995) [49] 6 0 1 19 - + + + + + + + + + + ? + + 86 89 85 77 79
Median score                    64 73 65 60 64
  1. TP = true positives; FP = false positives; FN = false negatives; TN = true negatives + = yes; - = no; ? = unclear