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Table 3 Example study summaries

From: Worked examples of alternative methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research in systematic reviews

Study Participants
Aims (where possible verbatim)
Appraisal of Methods
Infant age
Participation rate
Attributable quotations
Key findings
Baughcum et al. 1998 16 dieticians, 6 WIC* mothers, 8 teenage WIC mothers
Kentucky, USA
Qualitative (focus groups)
"to identify maternal beliefs and practices about child feeding that are associated with the development of childhood obesity"
Design allowed for exploration of subjective experience.
12–36 months age
Not stated for mothers, 95% for dieticians
Not attributable to individuals
WIC* clinic and WIC* nurses
Risk of bias as sampling restricted to health clinic users
Not stated
Mothers were not concerned about overweight in their children. This was perceived as a problem by dieticians and study authors.
Baughcum et al. 2001 454 mothers, 258 attending WIC* and 196 attending private child health clinics.
Cincinatti & Kentucky, USA
Quantitative attitudinal (closed questionnaire)
"to determine if the factor scores [from questionnaire under development] were associated cross-sectionally with (1) the child being overweight at the time of the survey (2) maternal obesity, and (3) lower socio-economic status."
Design did not allow for subjective views.
11–24 months, but considering retrospectively to first year.
Not attributable to individuals
Health clinics (WIC* or private)
Risk of bias as sampling restricted to health clinic users
Not stated
Mothers were more concerned about under eating and underweight, although where children were overweight there was concern about overeating and overweight.
  1. * Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children