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Table 1 Comparison to alloyed gold standard constructed as a mean of observed measurements from a given location in 2002 when there were at least two measurements (2 to 24; average = 6, N = 666).

From: Relative performance of different exposure modeling approaches for sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air in rural western Canada

Exposure Assessment Method for annual mean in 2002 ρTO a MSEb
Type of method/model Model descriptionNomenclature Use of measurementsc   
No model one measurement per locationM1 2002 0.67 0.15
Distance-decay contextual data onlyM2 None 0.21 0.28
Regression Effects used in prediction    
  fixed & random, BLUPM3 2001 0.77 0.03
  fixed effectsM3f 2001 0.33 0.12
Bayesian Prior    
  lognormalM4 2001 & 2002 0.68 0.15
  normal mixture from regression model M3M5 2001 & 2002 0.74 0.09
  normal mixture from context, M2M6 2002 0.28 0.30
  1. a: correlation with alloyed gold standard; b: mean squared error; c: only one measurement per location in 2002