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Table 4 Study features of published LCS intervention studies (n = 208) and cohort studies (n = 17) by health outcome groups

From: Creating a literature database of low-calorie sweeteners and health studies: evidence mapping

Outcome group (number of studies) Form of LCS intervention (number of studies) Study design (number of studies) Baseline health (number of studies) Age group (mean) Sample size (mean) Country (number of studies)
Appetite (84) Beverage (54), Food or meal (22), Supplement or oral rinse (8) RCT-c (48), RCT-p (22), nRCT-c (11), nRCT-p (1), Single arm (1), unclear (1) Healthy (66), Overweight/Obese (9), Mixed/other (9) 24.1 52 United States (41), Europe (31), Canada (9), Australia (3)
Alter energy sensing (75) Beverage (58), Food or meal (10), Supplement or oral rinse (7) RCT-c (48), RCT-p (10), nRCT-c (13), Single arm (3), unclear (1) Healthy (54), Overweight/Obese (2), Diabetic (1), Mixed/other (18) 26.1 47 United States (43), Europe (23), Canada (7), Asia (2)
Body weight or body composition (35) Beverage (14), Food or meal (13), Supplement or oral (8) RCT-c (7), RCT-p (25), nRCT-c (2), nRCT-p (1) Healthy (17), Overweight/Obese (8), Diabetic (5), Mixed/other (5) 35.6 92 United States (19), Europe (10), Asia (3), Africa (2), NR (1)
Body weight or body composition (17) cohort Beverage (17) Cohort (17) Healthy (17) 32.0 15,430 United States (1), Europe (1)
Dietary Intake (62) Beverage (39), Food or meal (19), Supplement or oral rinse (4) RCT-c (33), RCT-p (20), nRCT-c (5), nRCT-p (2) Single arm (2) Healthy (43), Overweight/Obese (12), Diabetic (1), Mixed/other (6) 27.2 39 United States (29), Europe (22), Canada (9), Australia (1), NR (1)
Glycemic (76) Beverage (42), Food or meal (19), Supplement or oral rinse (14), Not reported (1) RCT-c (51), RCT-p (21), nRCT-c (2), Single arm (2) Healthy (39), Overweight/Obese (8), Diabetic (17), Mixed/other (12) 37.6 31 United States (28), Europe (27), Asia (8), Australia (7), Canada (3), Africa (1), Not reported (2)
  1. NR Not reported, RCT-c Randomized controlled trial-crossover design, RCT-p Randomized controlled trial-parallel design, nRCT-c Non-randomized controlled trial-crossover design, nRCT-p Non-randomized controlled trial-parallel design