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Table 2 Birth outcomes of consented participants for Newborn Dried Blood Spot analyses stratified by plurality among households returning the 8-month packets for Upstate KIDS, New York (2008–2010)

From: Eliciting parental support for the use of newborn blood spots for pediatric research

  Singletons (2889 households)   Multiples (807 households)  
  Non-consent Consent p-value Non-consent Any Consent p-value
N (row %) 469 (16) 2420 (84) n/a 120 (15) 687 (85)  
Ventilator 9 (2) 84 (3) 0.08 8 (7) 124 (16) 0.002
NICU 29 (6) 174 (7) 0.43 40 (33) 300 (44) 0.03
Cesarean section (any) 187 (40) 931 (38) 0.57 103 (86) 536 (78) 0.05
Preterm (<37 weeks) 31 (7) 185 (8) 0.44 57 (48) 374 (55) 0.22
Early preterm (<32 weeks) 6 (1) 43 (2) 0.45 10 (4) 129 (11) 0.006
Low birth weight (<2500 g) 21 (4) 124 (5) 0.56 74 (62) 423 (62) 0.93
Deaths n/a n/a   1 (1) 31 (4) 0.07
  1. N (column %) unless indicated. N = number of households/mothers with conditions specified as “any” or “all” multiples as there were few discordant between twins in consent (i.e., 17 twins had discordant consent status with their co-twin). There were few triplets (33 sets consented, 2 not) and quadruplets (none consented, 1 set consented) so data not shown
  2. p-value by chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (for n < 5)