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Fig. 1 | BMC Medical Research Methodology

Fig. 1

From: How large are the consequences of covariate imbalance in cluster randomized trials: a simulation study with a continuous outcome and a binary covariate at the cluster level

Fig. 1

Parameter bias for the linear mixed model. Legend: The degree of covariate imbalance is given on the horizontal axes and expressed as quantiles of the hypergeometric distribution. Values below 0.5 imply negative covariate imbalance, values above 0.5 imply positive covariate imbalance and the value 0.5 implies covariate balance

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