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Table 2 Participants’ characteristics

From: How do researchers determine the difference to be detected in superiority trials? Results of a survey from a panel of researchers

Variables (number of available data) Respondents (n = 380a)
Male gender, n (%) (n = 370) 258 (69.7)
Mean age (±standard deviation [SD], n = 370) 48.2 (±10.2)
Country of residence, n (%) (n = 370)  
 North America
 South America
 Africa
 Asia
 Europe
 Oceania (Australia, New Zealand)
109 (29.4)
21 (5.7)
10 (2.7)
38 (10.3)
172 (46.5)
20 (5.4)
Mean number of past randomized controlled trial (RCT), n (%) (n = 380)  
 1–5
 6–10
 11–20
 >20
161 (42.4)
83 (21.8)
50 (13.2)
86 (22.6)
Proportion of RCT funded by industry, n (%) (n = 380)  
 None
 1–25 %
 26–50 %
 > = 51 %
180 (47.4)
87 (22.9)
44 (11.6)
69 (18.2)
Work in pediatrics, n (%) (n = 380) 59 (15.3)
Work in pain control, n (%) (n = 380) 66 (17.4)
Work in oncology, n (%) (n = 380) 42 (11.1)
Training in epidemiology, n (%) (n = 380) 44 (11.6)
Training in Medicine, n (%) (n = 380) 252 (66.3)
Training as a nurse, n (%) (n = 380) 16 (4.2)
Training in psychology, n (%) (n = 380) 32 (8.4)
Training in statistics, n (%) (n = 380) 15 (3.9)
Have received a degree in quantitative research methods, n (%) (n = 370) 158 (42.7)
Have received formal training in “Good Clinical Practices”, n (%) (n = 370) 269 (72.7)
Member of an Ethics committee for research, n (%) (n = 370) 114 (30.8)
Mean percent of work time in health care (±SD, n = 370) 36.9 (±32.8)
Mean percent of work time in research (±SD, n = 369) 46.7 (±30.6)
Familiarity with the definition of the research question, n (%) (n = 380)  
 Not familiar
 Familiar
 Expert
2 (0.5)
138 (36.3)
240 (63.2)
Familiarity with the choice of the primary outcome, n (%) (n = 380)  
 Not familiar
 Familiar
 Expert
4 (1.0)
124 (32.6)
252 (66.3)
Familiarity with the estimation of the sample size, n (%) (n = 380)  
 Not familiar
 Familiar
 Expert
25 (6.6)
229 (60.3)
126 (33.2)
Familiarity with the choice of the difference to be detected, n (%) (n = 380)  
 Not familiar
 Familiar
 Expert
20 (5.3)
206 (54.2)
154 (40.5)
Familiarity with the selection of statistical methods, n (%) (n = 380)  
 Not familiar
 Familiar
 Expert
40 (10.5)
237 (62.4)
103 (27.1)
  1. a% calculated on available data, missing were excluded