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Table 3 Additional details of the studies included in this review (n = 20)

From: A systematic review of studies with a representative sample of refugees and asylum seekers living in the community for participation in mental health research

Author(s) Community representative sample* RAS Sampling method(s) Sampling techniques Sampling considerations
a priori aim Used registry/census data
Multiple non-probability methods Probability (random) component Network-based In sampling/recruitment In assessing representativeness
Snowballing RDS Online
Fenta et al. 2006 [32] high Y Random sampling from created frame
Lists from Ethiopian organizations, telephone directory
Silove et al. 2007 [39] high Y Probabilistic sampling from created frame (house-to-house screening)
De Maio et al. 2014 [30] G high Y All eligible refugees listed in government settlement database were invited All in sample frame invited to participate
McAuliffe 2013 [37] G-Report high Y Sample frame of eligible refugees listed in government settlement database. Quota sampling also used
Commissariat for Refugees 2008 [29] G-Report med/high Y Multistage stratified sampling Unclear Municipality registries
Citizenship and Immigration Canada 2011 [28] G-Report med/high Y Random sampling from created frame
Government database
Cochran et al. 2013G/Ao (2016) [23]* med/high Y State-based stratification with random sampling from created frame. Supplementary purposive and probability proportional to size sampling
Maximova & Krahn 2010 [36] G med/high Y Systematic sampling (every nth name) from sampling frame Systematic every nth name in database
Government settlement database
Gerritsen et al. 2006 [33] med/high Y Random samples of refugees were obtained from population registries, plus asylum seekers living in randomly selected reception centres
Spring et al. 2003 [40] med/high Y Multiple purposive sampling methods: Targeted, convenience, snowball sampling
School enrolments, birth statistics, state resettlement records
Bhui et al. 2006 [24] medium Y Community based sampling (convenience) & primary care registry lists (random)
Bilsborrow et al. 2011 [25] medium Y Oversampling (probability sampling) first with supplementary snowball sampling
Blight et al. 2006 [26] medium Y Random sample drawn from a large registry of community living target group
Heeren et al. 2012 [34] medium Y National register of adult asylum seekers (sampled consecutively)
Khavarpour & Rissel 1997 [35] medium Y Snowball sampling with strategies to access diverse social networks
Qiu et al. 2012 [38] medium N Respondent driven sampling
Gender ratio
Vial et al. 2014 [18] medium N Field (convenience) and online sampling
Wylie & Jolly 2013 [19] medium N Respondent driven sampling
Bogic et al. 2012 [27] G medium Y Multiple random and non-random sampling: resident registers, snowballing, community-based sampling
Dunlavy 2001 [31] G-Thesis medium Y Non-probability stratified quota sampling, community-based snowballing with multiple starting points
  1. RAS = refugee and/or asylum seeker participants. Non-peer-reviewed publications are emphasize in bold in table
  2. G Identified in grey literature search. G-Report Government reports identified in grey literature search. G-Thesis Dissertations identified in grey literature search