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Data analysis, statistics and modelling

This section considers manuscripts that investigate how statistical techniques can impact study results along with manuscripts that propose new statistical methods that have an application in medical research.

Page 1 of 13

  1. Recent evidence suggests that there is often substantial variation in the benefits and harms across a trial population. We aimed to identify regression modeling approaches that assess heterogeneity of treatmen...

    Authors: Alexandros Rekkas, Jessica K. Paulus, Gowri Raman, John B. Wong, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Peter R. Rijnbeek, David M. Kent and David van Klaveren

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:264

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. For outcomes that studies report as the means in the treatment and control groups, some medical applications and nearly half of meta-analyses in ecology express the effect as the ratio of means (RoM), also cal...

    Authors: Ilyas Bakbergenuly, David C. Hoaglin and Elena Kulinskaya

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:263

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Interest in models for calculating the risk of death in traumatic patients admitted to ICUs remains high. These models use variables derived from the deviation of physiological parameters and/or the severity o...

    Authors: Luis Serviá, Neus Montserrat, Mariona Badia, Juan Antonio Llompart-Pou, Jesús Abelardo Barea-Mendoza, Mario Chico-Fernández, Marcelino Sánchez-Casado, José Manuel Jiménez, Dolores María Mayor and Javier Trujillano

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:262

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Network meta-analysis (NMA) provides a powerful tool for the simultaneous evaluation of multiple treatments by combining evidence from different studies, allowing for direct and indirect comparisons between tr...

    Authors: Andreas Heinecke, Marta Tallarita and Maria De Iorio

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:261

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Unstructured data from clinical epidemiological studies can be valuable and easy to obtain. However, it requires further extraction and processing for data analysis. Doing this manually is labor-intensive, slo...

    Authors: Robert Chen, Joyce C. Ho and Jin-Mann S. Lin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:258

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Projection of future cancer incidence is an important task in cancer epidemiology. The results are of interest also for biomedical research and public health policy. Age-Period-Cohort (APC) models, usually bas...

    Authors: Maximilian Knoll, Jennifer Furkel, Jürgen Debus, Amir Abdollahi, André Karch and Christian Stock

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:257

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Dietary patterns were associated with the risk of chronic disease development and outcome-related diseases. In this study, we aimed to compare the correlation between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome (M...

    Authors: Adi Lukas Kurniawan, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Hsiu-An Lee, Hsiao-Hsien Rau, Rathi Paramastri, Ahmad Syauqy and Jane C.-J. Chao

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:255

    Content type: Research article

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  8. There is a call for valid and reliable instruments to evaluate implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP). The 15-item Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) measures attitude toward EBP, incorpo...

    Authors: Anna Helena Elisabeth Santesson, Martin Bäckström, Robert Holmberg, Sean Perrin and Håkan Jarbin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:254

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Go/no-go decisions after phase II and sample size chosen for phase III are usually based on phase II results (e.g., the treatment effect estimate of phase II). Due to the decision rule (only promising phase II...

    Authors: Stella Erdmann, Marietta Kirchner, Heiko Götte and Meinhard Kieser

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:253

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In health research, population estimates are generally obtained from probability-based surveys. In market research surveys are frequently conducted from volunteer web panels. Propensity score adjustment (PSA) ...

    Authors: Andrew Copas, Sarah Burkill, Fred Conrad, Mick P. Couper and Bob Erens

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:251

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal clinical trials and cohort studies, and is of particular concern when dropout occurs for reasons that may be related to the outcome of interest. This paper reviews c...

    Authors: Camille M. Moore, Samantha MaWhinney, Nichole E. Carlson and Sarah Kreidler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:250

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Classic epidemic curves – counts of daily events or cumulative events over time –emphasise temporal changes in the growth or size of epidemic outbreaks. Like any graph, these curves have limitations: they are ...

    Authors: Thomas Perneger, Antoine Kevorkian, Thierry Grenet, Hubert Gallée and Angèle Gayet-Ageron

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:248

    Content type: Technical advance

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  13. Researchers often misinterpret and misrepresent statistical outputs. This abuse has led to a large literature on modification or replacement of testing thresholds and P-values with confidence intervals, Bayes fac...

    Authors: Zad Rafi and Sander Greenland

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:244

    Content type: Technical advance

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  14. The early warning model of infectious diseases plays a key role in prevention and control. This study aims to using seasonal autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (SARFIMA) model to predict the...

    Authors: Chang Qi, Dandan Zhang, Yuchen Zhu, Lili Liu, Chunyu Li, Zhiqiang Wang and Xiujun Li

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:243

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the performance of a time-to-event data reconstruction method, to assess the bias and efficiency of unanchored matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) ...

    Authors: Yawen Jiang and Weiyi Ni

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:241

    Content type: Research article

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  16. A very large body of research documents relationships between self-reported Adverse Childhood Experiences (srACEs) and adult health outcomes. Despite multiple assessment tools that use the same or similar ques...

    Authors: Marianna D. LaNoue, Brandon J. George, Deborah L. Helitzer and Scott W. Keith

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:239

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The population attributable fraction (PAF) is the fraction of disease cases in a sample that can be attributed to an exposure. Estimating the PAF often involves the estimation of the probability of having the ...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Dylan S. Small and Michael O. Harhay

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:236

    Content type: Technical advance

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  18. Usability testing of medical devices are mandatory for market access. The testings’ goal is to identify usability problems that could cause harm to the user or limit the device’s effectiveness. In practice, hu...

    Authors: Vincent Vandewalle, Alexandre Caron, Coralie Delettrez, Renaud Périchon, Sylvia Pelayo, Alain Duhamel and Benoit Dervaux

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:234

    Content type: Technical advance

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  19. Contact tracing data of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is used to estimate basic epidemiological parameters. Contact tracing data could also be potentially used for assessin...

    Authors: Karikalan Nagarajan, Malaisamy Muniyandi, Bharathidasan Palani and Senthil Sellappan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:233

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Psychiatric disorders may occur as a single episode or be persistent and relapsing, sometimes leading to suicidal behaviours. The exact causes of psychiatric disorders are hard to determine but easy access to ...

    Authors: Sharmin Sharker, Lloyd Balbuena, Gene Marcoux and Cindy Xin Feng

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:232

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Defining incident cases has always been a challenging issue for researchers working with routine data. Lookback periods should enable researchers to identify and exclude recurrent cases and increase the accura...

    Authors: Jelena Epping, Siegfried Geyer and Juliane Tetzlaff

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:229

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become a major endpoint to assess the clinical benefit of new therapeutic strategies in oncology clinical trials. Typically, HRQoL outcomes are analyzed using linear ...

    Authors: B. Cuer, C. Mollevi, A. Anota, E. Charton, B. Juzyna, T. Conroy and C. Touraine

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:223

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Event-related potentials (ERP) data are widely used in brain studies that measure brain responses to specific stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG) with multiple electrodes. Previous ERP data analyses haven...

    Authors: Ye Lin, Jianhui Zhou, Swapna Kumar, Wanze Xie, Sarah K. G. Jensen, Rashidul Haque, Charles A. Nelson, William A. Petri Jr and Jennie Z. Ma

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:221

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The data from immuno-oncology (IO) therapy trials often show delayed effects, cure rate, crossing hazards, or some mixture of these phenomena. Thus, the proportional hazards (PH) assumption is often violated s...

    Authors: Jason J. Z. Liao, G. Frank Liu and Wen-Chi Wu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:218

    Content type: Technical advance

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  25. Monitoring and reporting of drug safety during a clinical trial is essential to its success. More recent attention to drug safety has encouraged statistical methods development for monitoring and detecting pot...

    Authors: Junhao Liu, Jo Wick, Renee’ H. Martin, Caitlyn Meinzer, Dooti Roy and Byron Gajewski

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:211

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:227

  26. As the whole world is experiencing the cascading effect of a new pandemic, almost every aspect of modern life has been disrupted. Because of health emergencies during this period, widespread fear has resulted ...

    Authors: Atanu Bhattacharjee, Gajendra K. Vishwakarma, Souvik Banerjee and Sharvari Shukla

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:209

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) presents a variety of challenges for ongoing clinical trials, including an inevitably higher rate of missing outcome data, with new and non-standard reasons for missingness....

    Authors: Suzie Cro, Tim P. Morris, Brennan C. Kahan, Victoria R. Cornelius and James R. Carpenter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:208

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Three-level data arising from repeated measures on individuals who are clustered within larger units are common in health research studies. Missing data are prominent in such longitudinal studies and multiple ...

    Authors: Rushani Wijesuriya, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, John B. Carlin and Katherine J. Lee

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:207

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The clinical progress of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 is often associated with severe pneumonia which may require intensive care, invasive ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). T...

    Authors: Derek Hazard, Klaus Kaier, Maja von Cube, Marlon Grodd, Lars Bugiera, Jerome Lambert and Martin Wolkewitz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:206

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In the presence of dependent censoring even after stratification of baseline covariates, the Kaplan–Meier estimator provides an inconsistent estimate of risk. To account for dependent censoring, time-varying c...

    Authors: Takuya Kawahara, Tomohiro Shinozaki and Yutaka Matsuyama

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:204

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Missing data are common in statistical analyses, and imputation methods based on random forests (RF) are becoming popular for handling missing data especially in biomedical research. Unlike standard imputation...

    Authors: Shangzhi Hong and Henry S. Lynn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:199

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evidence-based practice. However, RCTs can have limitations. For example, translation of findings into practice can be limited by design features, ...

    Authors: Agnieszka Lemanska, Rachel C. Byford, Clare Cruickshank, David P. Dearnaley, Filipa Ferreira, Clare Griffin, Emma Hall, William Hinton, Simon de Lusignan, Julian Sherlock and Sara Faithfull

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:198

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Under competing risks, the commonly used sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR) is not easy to interpret clinically and is valid only under the proportional sub-distribution hazard (SDH) assumption. This paper intro...

    Authors: Jingjing Lyu, Yawen Hou and Zheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:197

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases divided by population size is used as a coarse measurement for the burden of disease in a population. However, this fraction depends heavily on the sampling intensity and...

    Authors: Ola Brynildsrud

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:196

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Controlling unobserved confounding still remains a great challenge in observational studies, and a series of strict assumptions of the existing methods usually may be violated in practice. Therefore, it is urg...

    Authors: Lu Liu, Lei Hou, Yuanyuan Yu, Xinhui Liu, Xiaoru Sun, Fan Yang, Qing Wang, Ming Jing, Yeping Xu, Hongkai Li and Fuzhong Xue

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:195

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  36. Two-dimensional personalized medicine (2-PM) models are tools for measuring individual benefits of medical treatments for chronic diseases which have potential applications in personalized medicine. These mode...

    Authors: Zhiwen Wang and Francisco J. Diaz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:193

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Vaccine clinical studies typically provide time-resolved data on adaptive response read-outs in response to the administration of that particular vaccine to a cohort of individuals. However, modeling such data...

    Authors: Dicle Hasdemir, Robert A. van den Berg, Antoine van Kampen and Age K. Smilde

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:191

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. In pairwise meta-analysis, the contribution of each study to the pooled estimate is given by its weight, which is based on the inverse variance of the estimate from that study. For network meta-analysis (NMA),...

    Authors: Gerta Rücker, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Theodoros Papakonstantinou, Georgia Salanti, Richard D. Riley and Guido Schwarzer

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:190

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Network meta-analysis synthesises data from a number of clinical trials in order to assess the comparative efficacy of multiple healthcare interventions in similar patient populations. In situations where clin...

    Authors: Rhiannon K. Owen, Sylwia Bujkiewicz, Douglas G. Tincello and Keith R. Abrams

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:184

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Given the high prevalence of neck pain, the neck disability index (NDI) has been used to evaluate patient status and treatment outcomes. Modified versions were proposed as solutions to measurement deficits in ...

    Authors: Ze Lu, Joy C. MacDermid and Goris Nazari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:180

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In epidemiology, causal inference and prediction modeling methodologies have been historically distinct. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are used to model a priori causal assumptions and inform variable selecti...

    Authors: Marco Piccininni, Stefan Konigorski, Jessica L. Rohmann and Tobias Kurth

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:179

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  42. Prognostic research has many important purposes, including (i) describing the natural history and clinical course of health conditions, (ii) investigating variables associated with health outcomes of interest,...

    Authors: Peter Kent, Carol Cancelliere, Eleanor Boyle, J. David Cassidy and Alice Kongsted

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:172

    Content type: Debate

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  43. Machine learning approaches have become increasingly popular modeling techniques, relying on data-driven heuristics to arrive at its solutions. Recent comparisons between these algorithms and traditional stati...

    Authors: Joshua J. Levy and A. James O’Malley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:171

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  44. When data are collected subject to a detection limit, observations below the detection limit may be considered censored. In addition, the domain of such observations may be restricted; for example, values may ...

    Authors: Justin R. Williams, Hyung-Woo Kim and Catherine M. Crespi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:170

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Causal effect estimation with observational data is subject to bias due to confounding, which is often controlled for using propensity scores. One unresolved issue in propensity score estimation is how to hand...

    Authors: Donna L. Coffman, Jiangxiu Zhou and Xizhen Cai

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:168

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Individual clinical trials and cohort studies are a useful source of data, often under-utilised once a study has ended. Pooling data from multiple sources could increase sample sizes and allow for further inve...

    Authors: Helen Le Sueur, Ian N. Bruce and Nophar Geifman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2020 20:164

    Content type: Debate

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