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Table 2 Change scores calculated using the different approaches for measuring change (indirect, quasi-indirect, direct)

From: Agreement between pre-post measures of change and transition ratings as well as then-tests

Outcome 1)   Status Change
Pre Retro-spective pre Post Indirect post minus pre Quasi-indirect post minus retrospective pre Direct transition rating
IRES sleep function2) M (SD) 3.7 (1.2) 3.8 (1.3) 4.2(1.1) 0.5 (1.2) 0.4 (1.2) 0.2 (0.7)
CI 95% -- -- -- 0.4; 0.6 0.2; 0.6 0.1; 0.3
ES -- -- -- 0.413) 0.363) 0.284)
N 343 192 347 319 161 147
SF-36 physical functioning index2) M (SD) 49.3 (27.3) 48.6 (30.0) 64.3 (26.2) 15.1 (21.5) 16.9 (23.5) 0.5 (0.7)
CI 95% -- -- -- 12.9; 17.2 13.5; 20.2 0.4; 0.7
ES -- -- -- 0.703) 0.723) 0.714)
N 383 191 383 383 191 184
SCL-90-R somatisation5) M (SD) 2.0 (0.6) 1.9 (0.6) 1.7 (0.5) −0.3 (0.5) −0.2 (0.4) 0.3 (0.5)
CI 95% -- -- -- −0.4; −0.3 −0.3; −0.2 0.2; 0.4
ES -- -- -- 0.663) 0.573) 0.604)
N 386 180 386 386 180 186
  1. Legend: post  pre = indirect measurement of change; post  retrospective pre = quasi-indirect measurement of change; directly reported change = direct measurement of change; M = mean, SD = standard deviation; CI = 95% confidence interval; ES = effect size.
  2. 1) for respondents completing t0 and t1 and providing valid responses2) Higher scores indicate better functioning.
  3. 3) standardized response mean (Mt1 Mt0)/SDdiff t1−t0.
  4. 4) M/SD.
  5. 5) Higher scores indicate higher level of somatisation.