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Table 1 Impact of propensity score adjustment for development cohort

From: The feasibility of matching on a propensity score for acupuncture in a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic pain

  Unadjusted for propensity score Adjusted for decile of propensity score
Started Acupuncture
(n = 952)
Did Not Start Acupuncture
(n = 59,564)
Standardized differencea Standardized differencea
Propensity score characteristicsb
 Opioid therapy plan 28.8% 17.8% 0.261 0.023
 Physical therapy past 30 days 16.3% 15.1% 0.032 −0.008
 Physical therapy past 31–180 days 25.0% 11.1% 0.368 0.018
 Physical therapy past 181–365 days 24.5% 12.1% 0.324 0.016
 Nonspecific chronic pain 29.6% 14.4% 0.373 0.031
 Substance abuse 4.6% 4.1% 0.028 0.003
 Sleep problem 23.6% 14.6% 0.232 0.016
 History of tobacco use 14.2% 12.9% 0.036 0.000
 Anxiety 23.7% 15.6% 0.206 0.017
 Pain treatment procedure 38.2% 22.5% 0.344 0.020
 Pain diagnosis procedure 65.3% 52.5% 0.261 0.011
 Pain medication 81.2% 65.0% 0.370 0.008
 Age (years) 53.8 (14.0) 55.2 (15.0) −0.097 −0.008
 Number of outpatient visits 15.9 (10.8) 10.4 (10.1) −0.543 0.011
 Months since cohort entry 29.1 (14.7) 25.2 (15.6) −0.246 0.010
 Ambulatory Charlson score 1.8 (2.2) 1.9 (2.1) −0.036 −0.006
Demographic Characteristics
 Female 72. 8% 62.0% 0.232 0.146
 White 91.2% 91.9% −0.023 −0.033
 Hispanic 5.4% 7.7% −0.091 −0.093
Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities
 Depression 21.5% 15.8% 0.148 0.014
Types of Nonmalignant Chronic Pain (NCP)
 Back and/or neck pain 80.6% 55.9% 0.539 0.407
 Joint pain (including osteoarthritis) 79.3% 79.3% 0.001 −0.114
 Fibromyalgia/other myofascial pain 30.1% 11.8% 0.461 0.257
 Headaches 18.0% 12.0% 0.167 0.077
 Neuropathy 1.5% 1.5% −0.001 0.011
 Temporomandibular disorders 5.0% 3.0% 0.105 0.046
 Carpal tunnel syndrome 6.5% 5.8% 0.028 −0.016
 Abdominal pain 6.3% 4.8% 0.068 −0.018
 Other NCP 5.8% 6.6% −0.034 −0.057
 Two of above NCP types 81.1% 60.6% 0.457 0.224
Pharmacotherapy
 Any use of an opioid 19.9% 11.8% 0.223 0.025
 Opioid morphine equivalent dose (MED) 0.3 (1.7) 0.2 (0.9) 0.122 −0.012
  ≥ 120 MED 7.9% 4.5% 0.141 −0.007
Mental health related
 Any antidepressant use 47.6% 35.4% 0.247 0.036
 Any anxiolytic use 33.1% 21.2% 0.270 0.041
 Any benzodiazepine use 35.4% 21.1% 0.321 0.067
  1. aStandardized difference expressed as (difference in means)/(pooled standard deviation) for continuous measures and as 2*(arcsin(√P1)-arcsin(√P2)) for binary data. For propensity score decile adjusted data, standardized differences calculated using same standard deviation as for unadjusted data in order to make comparison of standardized differences with and without adjustment more meaningful
  2. bContinuous data expressed as mean (standard deviation)