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Table 1 Characteristics of included systematic reviews for estimating trial effectiveness, and of RCTs for estimating uptake, of interventions to decrease antibiotic prescription for acute respiratory infections in primary care

From: What’s the uptake? Pragmatic RCTs may be used to estimate uptake, and thereby population impact of interventions, but better reporting of trial recruitment processes is needed

  Systematic Reviews used for estimating trial effectiveness Pragmatic RCTs used for estimating uptake
Intervention Clinical population Outcome Clinical population Recruitment of clinicians
Delayed prescribing [25] People patients of all ages with upper respiratory tract infection Antibiotic use (i.e. prescriptions filled) Adults with acute cough, for whom the physician intended to prescribe antibiotics [16] 22/61 practices approached actually participated. 48/92 GPs recruited patients to the trial (range = 1–25 per GP).
Procalcitonin [26] Adults with an acute respiratory infection (including lower respiratory infection such as pneumonia). Antibiotics prescribed Adults with an acute respiratory infection, for whom the physician intended to prescribe antibiotics [17] 53/345 eligible primary care physicians in 2 cantons in northwest Switzerland actually participated
CRP [27] People of all ages with acute respiratory infection (including lower respiratory infection such as pneumonia) Antibiotics prescribed People of all ages with respiratory
Infections (median age
= 37 years [18])
35/125 GPs in single-handed practices in the County of Funen actually participated
Shared decision making [28] People of all ages with acute respiratory infection (including lower respiratory infection such as pneumonia) Antibiotics prescribed, dispensed or decision to use Adults with acute respiratory infection. [19] 45/345 eligible GPs in two cantons, Basel-Stadt and Aargau actually participated.
People of all ages with acute cough (mean age
= 42 years [20]
101/2036 GPs from 9 regions in North-Rhine and Westphalia-Lippe actually participated
People of all ages with respiratory
Infections (71% adults) [21]
4/24 Family Medicine Groups (FMGs) in Quebec actually participated.
Within the participating FMGs, 33/42 FPs participated
  1. CRP C-Reactive Protein, GP General Practitioner, FMG Family Medicine Group, FP Family Practitioner