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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Methods of identifying and recruiting older people at risk of social isolation and loneliness: a mixed methods review

Author, year Location Type of study Aim of study Intervention setting
Bouwman et al., 2017 The Netherlands Quasi-experimental To evaluate the effectiveness of an online adaptation of the friendship enrichment programme Community
Collins and Benedict, 2006 USA Pre-experimental, pre-test, post-test To evaluate the effects of a community-based educational program designed to promote health by enhancing older adults’ mastery while decreasing loneliness and stress Community
Cox et al., 2007 USA Quasi-experimental To increase the capacity of cognitively able elders to effectively manage their own care and optimize relationships with caregivers Community, home and nursing home
Cresswell et al., 2012 USA RCT To test the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulnes stress reduction program on loneliness among older adults Community
Dickens et al., 2011 UK Prospective Controlled Trial To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based mentoring service for improving mental health, social engagement and physical health for socially isolated people Community
Freidman et al., 2017 USA Pre and post intervention To pilot test an intervention aimed at promoting psychological well-being among community living older adults Community
Fokkema and Knipscheer, 2007 Netherlands Mixed method- qualitative and quantitative study To evaluate the outcome of a digital intervention to reduce loneliness among chronically ill and disabled older adults Home
Gracia and Moyle, 2010 Australia Qualitative To assess perceptions of a self-help print-delivered intervention aimed at addressing loneliness in a retirement village community. Retirement village
Greenwald and Beery, 2001 USA Longitudinal study design To evaluate the outcome of an intervention designed to reduce isolation and improve quality of life Community
Honigh-De Vlaming et al., 2013a Netherlands Qualitative study To investigate how mass media communication materials, information meetings and psychological courses were received by elderly people at high risk of isolation Community
Honigh-De Vlaming et al., 2013b Netherlands Quasi-experimental pre-test post-test Evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people Home and group
Jones et al., 2015 UK Before and After To evaluate the value and impact of internet use on loneliness among older people Home and group setting
Kahlbaugh et al., 2011 USA RCT To investigate the effect of Wii technology on physical activity, loneliness and mood. Home
Kremers et al., 2006 Netherlands RCT Effect of a short group intervention on self-management, well-being, social and emotional loneliness of single older women Community
McAuley et al., 2000 USA RCT To evaluate the effect of physical activity on subjective wellbeing (SWB) and the role played by physical activity participation and social support in changes in SWB over time Community
Ollonqvist et al., 2008 Finland RCT To determine the effectiveness of a new rehabilitation model on loneliness among frail older people Rehabilitation centres
Pitkala et al., 2009 Finland RCT To investigate the impact of group rehabilitation on use of health care services and mortality from older persons suffering from loneliness (same population as Routasalo et al., 2009) Rehabilitation centre
Routasalo et al., 2009 Finland RCT To evaluate the effect of a psychosocial group nursing intervention on older people’s feelings of loneliness, social activity and psychological well-being (same population as Routasalo) Rehabilitation centre
Saito et al., 2012 Japan RCT To investigate the effect of a social isolation prevention program on loneliness, depression and well-being of older adults in Japan Community
Slegers et al., 2008 Netherlands RCT To investigate the relationship between computer use and wellbeing (physical, social and emotional) and quality of life Community and home
Stewart et al., 2001 Canada Pre-test, post-test To evaluate the impact of support groups on widowed seniors’ loneliness/isolation. Community
White et al., 2002 USA RCT To evaluate the impact of providing internet training and access to older adults Community and nursing home