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Table 3 Method of recruitment

From: Methods of identifying and recruiting older people at risk of social isolation and loneliness: a mixed methods review

Author/ year Methods of recruitment
Bouwman et al., 2017 Online advertisement, newspaper advertisements across specific regions
Collins and Benedict, 2006 Promotional flyers and newsletters at chosen senior centres and senior housing developments
Cox et al. 2007 Agencies, seniors’ groups and churches
Cresswell et al. 2012 Newspaper advertisements from local area
Dickens et al. 2011 Participants for the intervention group were recruited from cohort of individuals currently in receipt of mentoring while control group participants were recruited from those receiving usual care
Freidman et al., 2017 Participants were referred by community service organisations, others were recruited through newspaper advertisement and information flyers
Fokkema and Knipscheer 2007 Purposively selected by volunteer home visitors of Red Cross and disability support charity
Gracia and Moyle, 2010 Information was sent to managers of retirement village
Greenwald and Beery 2001 Community specialists identified individuals isolated or at risk of isolation through community agencies, food banks and city housing authority. Matched individuals throughout central and SE Seattle.
Honigh-De Vlaming et al. 2013a Invitation letter sent to 250 clients together with their meals. Of the 250 invitation letter, 14 were returned with an interest to participate, 3 partners were also included in the study (n = 17)
Honigh-De Vlaming et al. 2013b A range of approaches (mass-media campaign, stand at municipal information fair, monthly article in local newspaper, municipal information booklets, posters and brochures
Jones et al. 2015 Beneficiaries – awareness and referral from Age UK. Awareness raised through tenants of Plymouth Community Homes, adverts in community newspapers and bus shelters, attendance at local events and personal contacts. Volunteers were recruited via local advert.
Kahlbaugh et al. 2011 Participants were recruited through flyers posted in residential facilities and through informational sessions
Kremers et al. 2006 Advertisements in local newspapers in two regions of the Netherlands.
McAuley et al. 2000 Range of recruitment techniques – local newspaper, announcement and infomercials on local TV and radio, flyers in grocery stores, churches, senior centres
Ollonqvist et al. 2008 Selection by local social and health service staff from 7 independent rehabilitation centres & 41 municipalities
Pitkala et al. 2009 Postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of older people in 6 communities from the Finnish National Population register. The initial questionnaire required respondents to self-identify if they suffered from loneliness. a consent form was sent to those who self-identified
Routasalo et al. 2009 Same as Pitkala et al. (2009)
Saito et al., 2012 Respondents were identified from the basic resident registration card
Slegers et al. 2008 Flyer were randomly sent to 64–75 year olds on the city register
Stewart et al. 2001 No information on how the women were recruited
White et al. 2002 Information sessions for residents at housing and leaflets/flyers in housing